Frequently Used Terms
Demystifying Tech Jargon: Your Guide to Cybersecurity & Data Centre Terminology
Frequently Used Terms in Cyber Security & Data Centres
Hardware Security Module (HSM)
A hardware security module (HSM) is a physical computing device that protects and manages digital keys, and performs encryption and decryption functions for digital signatures, strong authentication and other cryptographic functions.
These modules traditionally come in the form of an external device that attaches directly to a computer or network server.
A hardware security module contains one or more secure cryptoprocessor chips.
Payment Hardware Security Module
A payment HSM is a secure hardware device that is mostly used by the retail banking industry to protect cryptographic keys and customer PINs. This device allows for the issuance of magnetic stripe and EMV chip cards (as well as their mobile application equivalents) while also processing credit and debit card payment transactions.
Payment HSMs have cryptographic support for all the main card scheme payment applications and go through independent hardware certification under schemes such as FIPS 140-2, PCI HSM. They also meet additional regional security requirements like MEPS in France and APCA in Australia.
Edge computing is a network architecture where data processing happens near the data’s origin instead of in a centralised location.
With high performance computing (HPC), you can aggregate enough processing power to deliver a much higher level of horsepower than traditional computers and servers. HPC, or supercomputing, works similarly to everyday computing but is much more powerful. It allows you to process large amounts of data very quickly by using multiple computers and storage devices as one cohesive unit. This makes it possible to investigate some of the world’s biggest problems in areas like science, engineering, and business.
Data in use is data that is currently being updated, processed, erased, accessed or read by a system. This type of data isn’t just sitting idly stored somewhere; it’s actively moving through different parts of an IT infrastructure.
A Data Centre (Or Data Center in American English) is a large group of networked computer servers typically used by organizations for the remote storage, processing, or distribution of large amounts of data.
IoT (Internet of Things)
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to physical objects that are equipped with sensors, processing ability, software, and other technologies that allow them to connect and exchange data with other devices and systems over the Internet or other communications networks.
The “Cloud” refers to servers that are accessed over the Internet, and the software and databases that run on those servers. They tend to be located in data centres, and they store software applications and databases. Using cloud computing means that users and companies don’t have to manage physical servers or run software on their own machines.
Data in motion, also called data in transit or in flight, is when digital information moves between locations within or between computer systems. The term can also describe data inside a computer’s RAM that is ready to be accessed, updated or processed. Data in motion is one of three states of data; the others are data at rest and active data.
Data at rest is simply defined as data that has reached its destination and isn’t being accessed or used. In other words, it’s stored data that doesn’t include anything moving across a network or temporarily taking up space in computer memory. Data at rest can either be archival files (i.e., documents hardly ever touched) or reference files (i.e., records frequently updated).